INCREASED ENERGY INTAKE AND A SHIFT TOWARDS HIGH-FAT, NON-STAPLE HIGH-CARBOHYDRATE FOODS AMONGST CHINA’S OLDER ADULTS, 1991-2009
K. Pan, L.P. Smith, C. Batis, B.M. Popkin
J Aging Res Clin Practice 2014;3(2):107-115
Objective: We examined trends from 1991- 2009 in total energy intake and food group intake, and examine whether shifts varied by age or generation. Design: Longitudinal time series (1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2009). Setting: Nine provinces in China. Participants: Older Chinese aged ≥60 years (n=5,068) from the China Health and Nutrition Survey from 1991-2009. Methods: Using three 24-hour recalls and a household food inventory collected over three consecutive days, the top twenty food group contributors to total energy intake from 1991- 2009 were identified, and the mean kilocalorie (kcal) difference between 1991 and 2009 for each food group was ranked. The top twenty food group contributors to total energy intake from 1991- 2009 were identified, and the mean kilocalorie (kcal) difference between 1991 and 2009 for each food group was ranked. Linear regression was used to examine changes in mean calorie intake of food groups between 1991 and 2009, adjusting for age, sex, and region. In addition, we examined changes in the mean kcal per capita intake to examine shifts by age group and generation. Results: Mean total energy intake increased significantly among older Chinese adults from 1379 total kilocalories in 1991 to 1463 kilocalories in 2009 (p< 0.001). Most food groups showed a significant increase in intake from 1991 to 2009, with plant oil, wheat buns, and wheat noodles showing the greatest increase. At the same age, more recent generations had more energy intake than earlier generations. An aging effect was observed, with energy intake decreasing with age, although more recent generations showed a smaller decrease in energy intake with aging. Conclusion: Older Chinese adults in recent generations show an increase in total calorie intake compared to older Chinese of earlier generations, paired with a less significant decrease in calorie intake as they age. Increased consumption of high-fat, non-staple high-carbohydrate foods such as plant oil and wheat buns suggests that diet quality of older Chinese adults is becoming less healthful in recent years.
K. Pan ; L.P. Smith ; C. Batis ; B.M. Popkin (2014): INCREASED ENERGY INTAKE AND A SHIFT TOWARDS HIGH-FAT, NON-STAPLE HIGH-CARBOHYDRATE FOODS AMONGST CHINA’S OLDER ADULTS, 1991-2009. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2014.20