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01/2020 journal articles

EDITORIAL: LIFESTYLE AND AGING

P. De Souto Barreto

J Aging Res & Lifestyle 2020;9:1-2

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CITATION:
P. de Souto Barreto (2020): Editorial: Lifestyle and Aging. The Journal of Aging and Lifestyle (JARLife). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarlife.2020.2

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PROLONGATION OF ORAL PHASE FOR INITIAL SWALLOW OF SOLID FOOD IS ASSOCIATED WITH ORAL DIADOCHOKINESIS DETERIORATION IN NURSING HOME RESIDENTS IN JAPAN: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

M. Shimosaka, W. Fujii, Y. Kakinoki, S. Akifusa

J Aging Res & Lifestyle 2020;9:3-8

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Background: Prolongation of bolus forming complicates ingestion, in particular in older adults. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine which oral functions are associated with prolongation of the oral phase of forming a bolus until swallowing in older adults. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: three nursing homes in Kitakyushu, Japan from August 2017 to October 2018. Participants: 39 adults >60-years. Measurements: Number of functional teeth, chewing ability, swallowing ability, tongue and cheek pressure, saliva flow rate, oral diadochokinesis, global cognitive function, and body mass index, were examined. Time of oral phase until the first swallowing of solid food was measured as the outcome of the study using video, and audio recording of the swallowing sound by a throat microphone, with the cutoff point designated at 30 s. Based on the oral phase, participants were divided in two groups: normal and prolonged. Results: The 39 enrolled participants had a median age of 87 years, 17.3% were men, and 48.7% had prolonged oral phase. In the prolonged group, the swallowing ability, saliva flow rate, tongue and cheek pressure, and oral diadochokinesis were significantly lower than in the normal group. Binomial logistic regression analysis revealed that oral phase prolongation was associated with oral diadochokinesis (odds ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.67–0.98) after adjusting for potential covariates. Conclusion: Oral diadochokinesis deterioration is significantly associated with oral phase prolongation for initial swallowing of solid food in older adults.

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INCREASING PROTEIN INTAKE TO HELP OLDER ADULTS INCREASE MUSCLE STRENGTH AND FUNCTION: A PILOT, SINGLE-ARM INVESTIGATION USING COACHING AND A PER-MEAL PROTEIN PRESCRIPTION

S.S. Gropper, M. Exantus, K.L. Jackson, S.M. Spiers, E.R. Vieira, D. D’Avolio, A. Opalinski, R. Tappen

J Aging Res & Lifestyle 2020;9:9-13

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Objective: To evaluate the effects of nutrition education, diet coaching, and a protein prescription (PP) on protein intake, and associations with muscle strength and function. Design: Prospective pretest posttest single-arm study. Setting: Urban area, East coast of South Florida. Participants: 20 white, non-Hispanic adults, aged 73.3 + 10.4 years. Intervention: 10-week telephone-based diet coaching, nutrition education and a per-meal PP. Measurements: Protein and energy intakes, weight, grip strength (GS), and 5-chair-rise (5CR), timed up and go (TUG), 3-meter walk (3mW) tests at baseline and 10 weeks. Results: Pre to 10-week post values significantly improved (p<0.05) for protein intake/kg body weight (0.8 + 0.3 to 1.2 + 0.3g), protein intake/meal (17.2 ± 4.8g to 26.4 ± 6.g), protein intake/100 kcal (3.74 + 1.16 to 5.97 + 0.98g), GS (22.4 to 23.4kg), and times for TUG (10 to 8sec), 3mW (4 to 3sec), and 5CR (13 to 11sec). Conclusions: Given the positive findings of this unique pilot investigation, additional studies, which include a larger more diverse group of participants and provide for control group(s), are needed to better investigate the effectiveness of this approach and its effects on muscle strength and function.

CITATION:
S.S. Gropper ; M. Exantus ; K.L. Jackson ; S.M. Spiers ; E.R. Vieira ; D. D’Avolio ; A. Opalinski ; R. Tappen (2020): Increasing Protein Intake to Help Older Adults Increase Muscle Strength and Function: A Pilot, Single-arm Investigation using Coaching and a Per-meal Protein Prescription. The Journal of Aging and Lifestyle (JARLife). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarlife.2020.4

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