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01/2020 journal articles

EDITORIAL: LIFESTYLE AND AGING

P. De Souto Barreto

J Aging Res & Lifestyle 2020;9:1-2

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CITATION:
P. de Souto Barreto (2020): Editorial: Lifestyle and Aging. The Journal of Aging and Lifestyle (JARLife). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarlife.2020.2

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PROLONGATION OF ORAL PHASE FOR INITIAL SWALLOW OF SOLID FOOD IS ASSOCIATED WITH ORAL DIADOCHOKINESIS DETERIORATION IN NURSING HOME RESIDENTS IN JAPAN: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

M. Shimosaka, W. Fujii, Y. Kakinoki, S. Akifusa

J Aging Res & Lifestyle 2020;9:3-8

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Background: Prolongation of bolus forming complicates ingestion, in particular in older adults. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine which oral functions are associated with prolongation of the oral phase of forming a bolus until swallowing in older adults. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: three nursing homes in Kitakyushu, Japan from August 2017 to October 2018. Participants: 39 adults >60-years. Measurements: Number of functional teeth, chewing ability, swallowing ability, tongue and cheek pressure, saliva flow rate, oral diadochokinesis, global cognitive function, and body mass index, were examined. Time of oral phase until the first swallowing of solid food was measured as the outcome of the study using video, and audio recording of the swallowing sound by a throat microphone, with the cutoff point designated at 30 s. Based on the oral phase, participants were divided in two groups: normal and prolonged. Results: The 39 enrolled participants had a median age of 87 years, 17.3% were men, and 48.7% had prolonged oral phase. In the prolonged group, the swallowing ability, saliva flow rate, tongue and cheek pressure, and oral diadochokinesis were significantly lower than in the normal group. Binomial logistic regression analysis revealed that oral phase prolongation was associated with oral diadochokinesis (odds ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.67–0.98) after adjusting for potential covariates. Conclusion: Oral diadochokinesis deterioration is significantly associated with oral phase prolongation for initial swallowing of solid food in older adults.

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INCREASING PROTEIN INTAKE TO HELP OLDER ADULTS INCREASE MUSCLE STRENGTH AND FUNCTION: A PILOT, SINGLE-ARM INVESTIGATION USING COACHING AND A PER-MEAL PROTEIN PRESCRIPTION

S.S. Gropper, M. Exantus, K.L. Jackson, S.M. Spiers, E.R. Vieira, D. D’Avolio, A. Opalinski, R. Tappen

J Aging Res & Lifestyle 2020;9:9-13

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Objective: To evaluate the effects of nutrition education, diet coaching, and a protein prescription (PP) on protein intake, and associations with muscle strength and function. Design: Prospective pretest posttest single-arm study. Setting: Urban area, East coast of South Florida. Participants: 20 white, non-Hispanic adults, aged 73.3 + 10.4 years. Intervention: 10-week telephone-based diet coaching, nutrition education and a per-meal PP. Measurements: Protein and energy intakes, weight, grip strength (GS), and 5-chair-rise (5CR), timed up and go (TUG), 3-meter walk (3mW) tests at baseline and 10 weeks. Results: Pre to 10-week post values significantly improved (p<0.05) for protein intake/kg body weight (0.8 + 0.3 to 1.2 + 0.3g), protein intake/meal (17.2 ± 4.8g to 26.4 ± 6.g), protein intake/100 kcal (3.74 + 1.16 to 5.97 + 0.98g), GS (22.4 to 23.4kg), and times for TUG (10 to 8sec), 3mW (4 to 3sec), and 5CR (13 to 11sec). Conclusions: Given the positive findings of this unique pilot investigation, additional studies, which include a larger more diverse group of participants and provide for control group(s), are needed to better investigate the effectiveness of this approach and its effects on muscle strength and function.

CITATION:
S.S. Gropper ; M. Exantus ; K.L. Jackson ; S.M. Spiers ; E.R. Vieira ; D. D’Avolio ; A. Opalinski ; R. Tappen (2020): Increasing Protein Intake to Help Older Adults Increase Muscle Strength and Function: A Pilot, Single-arm Investigation using Coaching and a Per-meal Protein Prescription. The Journal of Aging and Lifestyle (JARLife). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarlife.2020.4

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NIGELLA SATIVA OIL AS AN AGENT IN ENHANCING IMMUNITY AGAINST COVID-19

D.M. Abdulah

J Aging Res & Lifestyle 2020;9:14-15

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CITATION:
D.M. Abdulah (2020): Nigella sativa oil as an agent in enhancing immunity against COVID-19. The Journal of Aging and Lifestyle (JARLife). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarlife.2020.5

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ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN MULTIDOMAIN LIFESTYLE INTERVENTIONS AND INTRINSIC CAPACITY DOMAINS DURING AGING: A NARRATIVE REVIEW

M. Fourteau , K. Virecoulon Giudici, Y. Rolland, B. Vellas, P. de Souto Barreto

J Aging Res & Lifestyle 2020;9:16-25

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Background: Recently, the World Health Organization defined five domains of intrinsic capacity (IC), composed of physical and mental capacities linked to body functions, and that contribute to healthy aging: locomotion, cognition, psychological, vitality and sensorial. In the past decade, studies investigating the effects of concomitant lifestyle interventions (also called multidomain interventions) on one or several IC domains have been developed. The aim of this study is to synthetize the scientific literature about the associations between multidomain lifestyle interventions and IC domains. Methods: We conducted a narrative review of randomized controlled trials examining the effects of multidomain lifestyle interventions on at least one IC domain among older people. Multidomain intervention was defined as the presence of at least two of the following lifestyle interventions: physical activity/exercise, nutrition, cognitive stimulation, and management of cardiovascular risk factors (eg, smoking, alcohol consumption). Results: Multidomain interventions were associated with improvements on locomotion (as measured by performance-based tests of lower-limb function) and vitality (as measured by handgrip strength); benefits on cognitive function were also found, in particular among populations at increased risk of dementia and when operationalizing strong multidomain interventions (eg, using regular exercise training instead of physical activity advices). No study investigated the effects of multidomain lifestyle interventions on the sensorial domain (hearing and/or vision). The modalities composing the multidomain interventions and intervention length, as well as study population, substantially varied across studies; the most common combination of interventions was physical activity- and nutritional-related interventions. Conclusion: Available evidence is still limited, but literature suggests a positive effect of multidomain lifestyle interventions on IC domains, in particular locomotion. Further studies are still needed on this topic, in particular, studies exploring the effects of multidomain lifestyle interventions on the sensorial domain, as well as on a composite measurement of all IC domains.

CITATION:
M. Fourteau ; K. Virecoulon Giudici ; Y. Rolland ; B. Vellas ; P. de Souto Barreto (2020): Associations between Multidomain lifestyle Interventions and Intrinsic Capacity domains during Aging: A Narrative Review. The Journal of Aging and Lifestyle (JARLife). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarlife.2020.6

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DETERMINANTS OF FOOD INSECURITY AMONG CONGREGATE MEAL PARTICIPANTS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY USING PARTICIPANT INFORMATION MATCHED TO GEOGRAPHIC AND SERVICE PROVIDER DATA

J. Mabli, M. Shenk

J Aging Res & Lifestyle 2020;9:26-34

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Background: As people age, they are more likely to face financial, medical, and mobility related challenges that can put them at risk of food insecurity. This is a serious public health concern that has been associated with many adverse health outcomes.Objectives: This study examined factors associated with food insecurity among older adults who receive congregate meals from the Administration on Aging’s Nutrition Services Program. Combining participant, geographic, and provider data allowed for a more detailed assessment of older adult food insecurity than is typically possible using other national surveys. Design: A cross-sectional study. We conducted a cross-sectional data analysis using national survey data from the Administration on Aging’s Nutrition Services Program Outcomes Survey, conducted from 2015 to 2016. The data were linked to provider data from the meal site where participants ate. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the associations between food insecurity and demographic, household, geographic, and provider-level characteristics and circumstances. Setting: Interviews with congregate meal participants were conducted in person at congregate meal sites or another preferred place. Participants: A total of 520 older adults were included as study participants. All older adults were participating in the Nutrition Services Program and receiving congregate meals at the time of the survey interview. All participants were at least 67 years old. Measurements: This study used a 6-item food security measure as the dependent variable. Older adults who answered at least 3 of the 6 questions affirmatively were considered food insecure. Food security was assessed over a 30-day recall period. Results: 18% of congregate meal participants lived in food insecure households. Among congregate meal participants, having low income, difficulty reaching family and friends, past military service, and mobility challenges, and attending a site that provided nutrition counseling were associated with increased food insecurity (most odds ratios ranged from 1.1 to 2.6). Older age, geographic access to food, certain chronic health conditions, and provider-offered nutrition screening and social activities reduced the odds of experiencing food insecurity (most odds ratios ranged from 0.2 to 0.4). Conclusions: Although the Nutrition Services Program helps to alleviate food insecurity, a nontrivial percentage of participants remain food insecure. Nutrition programs can help address clients’ food access limitations by broadening nutrition screenings at meal sites to include more comprehensive assessments based on non-traditional risk factors for food insecurity.

CITATION:
J. Mabli ; M. Shenk (2020): Determinants of Food Insecurity Among Congregate Meal Participants: A Cross-Sectional Study Using Participant Information Matched to Geographic and Service Provider data. The Journal of Aging and Lifestyle (JARLife). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarlife.2020.7

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TECHNOLOGY AND SPECIALIST CARE FOR OLDER PATIENTS IN THE POST COVID-19 ERA

K. Dervan, G. Mulkerrin, T. McDonnell, E.C. Mulkerrin

J Aging Res & Lifestyle 2020;9:35-39

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The COVID-19 pandemic poses a major challenge to delivering multi-disciplinary complex care for older patients. Modern technology can assist in providing such care. This article highlights efforts to bridge the "digital divide" between generations and addresses the beneficial impact telemedicine has on older people’s lifestyles. Novel triage models for accessing emergency care which were successful for patients of all age groups including those over 65 years are described. Moreover, innovative successful approaches to the outpatient assessment of older patients with complex chronic health conditions using telemedicine are highlighted. Furthermore, innovative solutions piloted in remote areas of Australia offer promise for telemedicine-lead remote assessment of older patients, and the results are encouraging compared to in-person consultations. The experience with a General Practitioner (GP)/specialist online real-time interaction model for remote management of HF in mainly older people has also been encouraging. The use of telemedicine in falls prevention has produced impressive results in high-risk older patients albeit with some ambivalence from older participants. Virtual reality rehabilitation programmes have produced better physical outcomes than traditional rehabilitation programmes. Furthermore, telerehabilitation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and HF have shown to be both feasible and effective. To maximise their benefits in the difficult post-COVID-19 period, technologies must be embraced by both physicians and older patients. Online community care platforms discussed have demonstrated a positive, tangible impact on the lifestyle of the older generation. Furthermore, educational guidelines can assist in implementing the fundamentals of telemedicine, but for the widespread successful and safe integration of these services, adoption of regulatory frameworks with a focus on ethical issues of telehealth is imperative.

CITATION:
K. Dervan ; G. Mulkerrin ; T. McDonnell ; E.C. Mulkerrin (2020): Technology and specialist care for older patients in the post COVID-19 era. The Journal of Aging and Lifestyle (JARLife). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarlife.2020.8

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