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UTILITY OF POLYGENIC RISK SCORING TO PREDICT COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT AS MEASURED BY PRECLINICAL ALZHEIMER COGNITIVE COMPOSITE SCORE

Q. Gao, P. Daunt, A.M. Gibson, R.J. Pither, for the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

J Aging Res & Lifestyle 2022;11:1-8

Background: The utility of Polygenic Risk Scores (PRS) is gaining increasing attention for generating an individual genetic risk profile to predict subsequent likelihood of future onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), especially those carry two copies of the APOE E3 allele, currently considered at neutral risk in all populations studied. Objectives: To access the performance of PRS in predicting individuals whilst pre-symptomatic or with mild cognitive impairment who are at greatest risk of progression of cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s Disease from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) as measured by the Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite (PACC) score profile. Design: A longitudinal analysis of data from the ADNI study conducted across over 50 sites in the US and Canada. Setting: Multi-centre genetics study. Participants: 594 subjects either APOE E3 homozygotes or APOE E3/E4 heterozygotes who upon entry to the study were diagnosed as cognitively normal or with mild cognitive impairment. Measurements: Use of genotyping and/or whole genome sequencing data to calculate polygenic risk scores and assess its ability to predict subsequent cognitive decline as measured by PACC over 5 years. Results: Assessing both cognitively normal and mild cognitive impaired subjects using a PRS threshold of greater than 0.6, the high genetic risk participant group declined more than the low risk group over 5 years as measured by PACC score (PACC score reduced by time). Conclusions: Our findings have shown that polygenic risk score provides a promising tool to identify those with higher risk to decline over 5 years regardless of their APOE alleles according to modified PACC profile, especially its ability to identify APOE3/E3 cognitively normal individuals who are at most risk for early cognitive decline. This genotype accounts for approximately 60% of the general population and 35% of the AD population but currently would not be considered at higher risk without access to expensive or invasive biomarker testing.

CITATION:
Q. Gao ; P. Daunt ; A.M. Gibson ; R.J. Pither ; for the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (2022): Utility of Polygenic Risk Scoring to Predict Cognitive Impairment as Measured by Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite Score. The Journal of Aging and Lifestyle (JARLife). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarlife.2022.1

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