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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CANADIAN AND MEDITERRANEAN DIETS: AN ASSESSMENT OF MACRONUTRIENTS IN THE DIETS OF CANADIAN OLDER ADULTS USING DATA FROM THE CANADIAN COMMUNITY HEALTH SURVEY 2.2

I. Culum, J.B. Orange, D. Forbes, M. Borrie

J Aging Res Clin Practice 2015;4(4):205-213

Introduction: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a diet that limits saturated fat consumption and encourages unsaturated fat consumption. A diet that is compatible with the WHO recommendations and of considerable interest to researchers interested in dementia is the Mediterranean diet (MeDi). What is known empirically at present about the MeDi and dementia is that t may have roles to play in reducing the risk factors as well as the overall risk for developing dementia. Objectives: In this cross-sectional study, we examined the macronutrient composition of the average Canadian diet (CanDi) in order to see how it may differ from the average Mediterranean diet (MeDi). Additionally, we compared how the CanDi differs between groups based on gender, age, geographical location and classification (i.e. urban vs. rural), and dementia risk. Design: The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2.2 data were used to estimate the macronutrient composition of the CanDi for older adults (age 50+) (N = 10,503 [4,955 male, 5,548 female], mean age = 64[10.30]). Results: The average daily macronutrient intake in a CanDi was found to be 227.7 g of carbohydrates, 78.5 g of proteins, 67.8 g of fats (21.8 g of saturated fats, 27.1 g of monounsaturated fats, and 12.4 g of polyunsaturated fats), as well as 8.3 g of alcohol and have an average energy value of 1856.9 Kcal. The energy breakdown by macronutrient in a CanDi is estimated as follows: 49.2% from carbohydrates, 16.9% from proteins, and 31.1% from fats (10% saturated, 12.3% monounsaturated, and 5.7% polyunsaturated fats). On average, the respondents did not meet the daily energy requirements for their respective age group as outlined in Canada’s Food Guide. Conclusion: The macronutrient composition of the CanDi differs not only from the MeDi, but also from previous Western diet generalizations. Of particular interest is the finding that respondents identified as being “at-risk” for developing dementia consumed significantly less of each macronutrient and less food overall than those who were identified as otherwise healthy.

CITATION:
I. Culum ; J.B. Orange ; D. Forbes ; M. Borrie (2015): Differences between Canadian and Mediterranean diets: An assessment of macronutrients in the diets of Canadian older adults using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2015.73

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