CALCIUM AND VITAMIN D STATUS OF KELANTANESE MALAY WOMEN FROM LOW INCOME FAMILY: A POPULATION-BASED STUDY
M. Hawa, H. Sakinah, H. Hermizi
J Aging Res Clin Practice 2013;2(2):191-196
Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the calcium and vitamin D status of Malay women from low income family in Kelantan. Design: The study design is a cross-sectional study. Setting: Kelantan, Malaysia. Participants: Calcium and vitamin D status were determined in 150 (51 pre and 99 postmenopausal) healthy Kelantanese Malay women. Measurements: Calcium intake was determined by diet recall and food frequency questionnaire, while vitamin D based on serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D). Results: The data showed that the mean calcium intake was 492.9±316.51 mg/day where 86.3% of the pre- and 91.9% of the postmenopausal subjects have calcium intakes lower than the recommended daily intake for Malaysian women (800 mg/day and 1000mg/day respectively). The intake of calcium was affected by calorie intake and education level (P<0.05). Whilst for vitamin D, 16.4% of the subjects were classified under Hypovitaminosis D, 82.9% insufficient vitamin D level and another 0.7% is under deficiency category. None of the subjects have sufficient circulating level of 25 (OH) vitamin D. Vitamin D intake showed significant correlation with BMI (P<0.05). Conclusion: These findings, which showed that majority of the subjects, have low calcium and vitamin D status is a concern as it will lead to public health problems, especially osteoporosis. Strategy needs to be developed in combating this problem in the lower income populations. Educating the public to raise consciousness towards healthy eating and maintaining a healthy body mass index, and calcium with vitamin D supplementation in the selected high risk groups might be a cost-effective preventative measure.