DIETARY PATTERNS, NUTRIENT INTAKES, AND NUTRITIONAL AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY STATUS OF SAUDI OLDER ADULTS: A NARRATIVE REVIEW
H. M. Alsufiani, T.A. Kumosani, D. Ford, J.C. Mathers
J Aging Res Clin Practice 2015;4(1):2-11
Objective: to review the dietary patterns, nutrient intakes, and nutritional and physical activity status of older adults living in Saudi Arabia, to examine geographical differences in such patterns and to identify research gaps in respect of nutrition and physical activity for this population group. Design: Databases and websites (including Pubmed, Scopus, Proquest, Google Scholar and Arab Center for Nutrition) were searched in English and Arabic languages using the following key words: nutritional status, dietary pattern, food pattern, dietary habits, micronutrient intake and status, macronutrients intake, obesity, malnutrition, iron deficiency anemia, vitamin D, physical activity, exercise, Saudi older adults and Saudi elderly. All relevant and available data for both free-living and institutionalized Saudi older adults (> 50 years old or with mean age > 50 years) published in the last 20 years were included in this review. Results: We found that free-living females consumed fewer meals, and less fruits and vegetables, but their reported energy intake was higher than for males. Low intake of vitamins C and D were common in both genders and in those who lived in western and northern regions while low intake of folate and fiber were common in institutionalized people. Omega-3 fatty acids and fish were more highly consumed by older adults living in the coastal region compared with residents in the internal region. Obesity, overweight, vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency and physical inactivity were prevalent in free living older adults throughout the country while underweight and iron deficiency anemia were prevalent in institutionalized persons. Conclusion: Information on dietary patterns, nutrient intakes, and nutritional and physical activity status of older adults living in Saudi Arabia is fragmentary and interpretation of the findings is hampered by the lack of population-representative sampling frames and the use of heterogeneous data collection tools. More systematic studies are essential to facilitate objective assessment of these important lifestyle-related factors and to inform public health policies.
H. M. Alsufiani ; T.A. Kumosani ; D. Ford ; J.C. Mather (2015): DIETARY PATTERNS, NUTRIENT INTAKES, AND NUTRITIONAL AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY STATUS OF SAUDI OLDER ADULTS: A NARRATIVE REVIEW. The Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice (JARCP). http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jarcp.2015.46